Apocrypha – Part I

The Apocrypha is a collection of ancient writings that were not included in the Jewish and Christian canons of scripture. These books are considered to be of varying degrees of historical and theological significance, and they offer unique insights into the religious beliefs and practices of ancient communities. In this essay, I will provide an overview of what the books of Apocrypha contain and offer a comparative analysis of their contents with the Bible and the Bhagavad Gita.

The Apocrypha includes a diverse range of texts that cover different genres such as history, wisdom literature, and apocalyptic prophecy. Some of the most significant books in the Apocrypha include the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Tobit, Judith, Baruch, and the two books of Maccabees. These books are generally considered to have been written in the period between the fourth century BCE and the first century CE.

The Wisdom of Solomon is a philosophical work that explores the nature of wisdom and its relationship to God. It argues that wisdom is the key to understanding the natural world and the moral principles that govern human behavior. Sirach is a collection of ethical teachings and advice that offer guidance on how to live a virtuous life. Tobit is a narrative that tells the story of a pious Jew who suffers various misfortunes but ultimately triumphs through faith and obedience to God. Judith is a historical account of a Jewish woman who saves her people from destruction by seducing and killing the enemy commander. Baruch is a collection of prayers and lamentations that express the grief and despair of the Jewish people after the Babylonian exile. The books of Maccabees recount the struggles of the Jewish people against the Seleucid Empire and the Hellenistic culture that threatened their religious identity.

When comparing the contents of the Apocrypha with the Bible and the Bhagavad Gita, there are some similarities and differences. The Bible and the Apocrypha share some common themes such as the nature of God, the importance of faith, and the value of wisdom. However, the Bible and the Apocrypha also differ in terms of their theological perspectives and historical contexts. The Bible is focused primarily on the history and theology of the Jewish and Christian faiths, whereas the Apocrypha includes works from a variety of Jewish and Hellenistic communities.

The Bhagavad Gita, on the other hand, is a Hindu scripture that explores the nature of the self, the concept of karma, and the relationship between the individual and the divine. While there are some similarities between the Bhagavad Gita and the Apocrypha in terms of their ethical teachings and emphasis on faith, the two texts are fundamentally different in their philosophical and theological perspectives.

To provide a more comprehensive comparison of the Apocrypha, Bible, and Bhagavad Gita, the table below summarizes some of the key themes and content of each text.

ThemeApocryphaBibleBhagavad Gita
GodMonotheisticMonotheisticPolytheistic
FaithImportanceImportanceImportance
WisdomEmphasizedEmphasizedEmphasized
EthicsCentralCentralCentral
HistoryFocusFocusMythology
CultureHellenisticJewishHindu

In conclusion, the books of Apocrypha are an important collection of ancient writings that offer unique insights into the religious beliefs and practices of Jewish and Hellenistic communities. They cover a diverse range of genres and themes, including history, wisdom, ethics, and apocalyptic prophecy. While there are some similarities between the Apocrypha, the Bible, and the Bhagavad Gita, each text has its own distinct theological and philosophical perspectives that reflect the unique historical and cultural contexts in which they were written. Studying these texts can deepen our understanding of the complex and varied ways in which different religious traditions have sought to understand the nature of the divine and our relationship to it.


Here are some sources that may be of value for further study and research on the Apocrypha:

  1. “The Apocrypha” by Edgar J. Goodspeed – This book provides a comprehensive overview of the Apocrypha, including historical background, literary analysis, and theological themes.
  2. “The Oxford Handbook of the Apocrypha” edited by Jerry L. Sumney – This collection of essays by leading scholars offers in-depth analyses of individual books of the Apocrypha, as well as broader themes and issues related to the collection as a whole.
  3. “The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha” edited by Michael Coogan, Marc Brettler, and Carol Newsom – This annotated edition of the Apocrypha provides helpful introductions, notes, and annotations to each of the texts, as well as historical and cultural background information.
  4. “The Apocryphal Old Testament” edited by H.F.D. Sparks – This collection of translations of the Old Testament Apocrypha includes helpful introductions and notes to each text.
  5. “Apocrypha Now” podcast by Brent Niedergall – This podcast offers engaging and accessible discussions of individual books of the Apocrypha, as well as broader themes and issues related to the collection.

I hope these resources are helpful for your further study and research!

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